Nutrition Consultancy

Serving Feed Industry Since 1986

What We Do

Grain Processing Systems

  • Feed Mills (Poultry, Dairy & Fish Feed)
  • Grains Processing System for Rice
  • Oil Grains  Processing System

Grain Handling & Storage Systems

  • Grains Handling Equipment
  • PLC operated Automatic Temperature Monitoring & Aeration Systems
  • Grains Dryers
  • Hangers

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Nutrition Consultancy

Over 30 years of experience in the field of Poultry/Dairy/Fish Feed Consultancy. Our consultants are Professionally Honest, dedicated, self-motivated, innovative and progressive. We can provided solutions backed by professional consultancy for following ares of our trade:

  • Poultry/Dairy/Fish Feed Consultancy
  • Feasibility Study
  • Project Designing, Execution & Operational Services
  • Grain Storage Systems, Silos/Dryers
  • Quality Control of Stored Grains
  • Least Cost Feed Formulation with computer software
  • Excellent FCR in Broilers
  • Record egg production in Layers and Breeders
  • Nutritional solutions to various problems of Poultry and Dairy
  • Preventive maintenance of Feed Plants for efficient and smooth production
  • Managing fuel and energy conservation
  • Efficient pelleting
  • Optimizing boiler operation and steam lines
  • HACCP, Bio-Security
  • Safety & Health Management
  • Expert in Hiring, training & motivating the Technical & Production staff

Poultry Feeds and Feeding

  • Nutrition. The process of digesting, absorbing and converting food into tissue and energy. Also, the study of this process.
  • Nutrient. A substance that can be used as food. Some people use “food” for nutrients eaten by people and “feed” or “feedstuff” for animals.
  • Digestion. The process of changing food to a form that can be absorbed from the digestive tract by the body tissues (mainly the intestines). In the digestive tract this is done by enzymes and other material produced by the digestive tract which break down the food into small, simple (molecular) components.
  • Digestion by microorganisms. Some bacteria and protozoa produce enzymes and other material that break down cellulose, and fibre etc. that non-herbivores (non-grass eaters) like chickens cannot digest. There is some digestion by microorganisms in the cecum of chickens. Enzymes produced by bacteria can be added to some feeds to improve digestion and absorption.
  • Metabolism. A chemical reaction that takes place in the tissues and organs of the body in which the food that has been digested and absorbed is changed either into energy or building blocks for the body. Energy is the power produced by the food. It is the fuel, like petrol for cars, on which the body runs and, like burning wood or petrol, metabolism requires oxygen and produces heat and waste material (carbon dioxide and water).
  • Basal metabolism, basal metabolic rate (BMR). The amount of energy (fuel) required to keep the body alive and operating without activity, growth or production.
  • Energy. Energy is the amount of power produced when food is metabolized. Energy is measured in heat units (calories or joules). In nutrition the kilocalorie (kcal) equals 1000 gram calories. A gram calorie is the heat required to raise 1 gram of water 1BC (14.5 to 15.5BC) (1 kcal equals 4.184 kjoules).
  • Metabolizable energy (ME). The amount of energy available to be used for maintenance, for production of body tissue (for growth and replacement), activity and egg production, when a food material or feed is eaten. It includes the heat lost during metabolism. The ME of a feed ingredient (individual feed) may be used to indicate the nutritional value of that ingredient. Feed ingredients or feeds are rated as high or low energy. ME depends on the quality of the feed and on the % dry matter. Good maize (corn) at 85% dry matter (15% water) has an ME of 3300 kcal/kg. The ME for barley is 2700 kcal/kg. Fats may have an ME of 9000 kcal/kg. If chickens are fed a low energy feed they will eat more feed, if it is available, to get the required energy. In monogastric animals, like chickens, energy comes mainly from carbohydrates and fats since fibre containing cellulose cannot be digested.
  • Organic. Organic compounds are defined in nutrition as animal or plant material containing carbon.
  • Carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are organic compounds and a source of energy for poultry. Simple carbohydrates are made up from sugars: glucose from maize is a monosaccharide. Lactose from milk, sucrose from sugarcane or sugar beets and in smaller amounts in many plants, particularly in their fruits, seeds or roots are disaccharides. Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) are made up from combinations of sugars. Some, like starch (from cassava, maize, wheat, etc.) can be digested by chickens while others (cellulose, a structural carbohydrate) cannot because animals do not have the enzymes to break down (hydrolyse) cellulose so that it can be absorbed. This digestion is done by bacteria and protozoa in herbavores.
  • Fats (oils, lipids). Fats are a source of energy and in some cases fat soluble vitamins. Like carbohydrates, they are organic compounds made up from carbon, hydrogen and oxygen which form fatty acids. Because they are higher in hydrogen and lower in oxygen than carbohydrates, fats have a higher energy value (ME) than carbohydrates. Fats that are high in unsaturated fatty acid are liquid at room temperature and are called oils. Vegetable oils (canola oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, etc.). Most essential fatty acids (required for health & growth) can be produced by the chicken from other food; but linoleic acid must be present in the diet of chickens for proper growth and egg production.
  • Proteins. Proteins are organic compounds used to build the cells, tissues and organs for the body. They are made up from many amino acids some of which are essential for growth and production. Proteins contain about 16% nitrogen so the amount of protein (crude protein, not the digestible or usable protein) in a feed can be estimated by measuring the nitrogen content. Excess protein (above what is required for growth or production) is used as energy and the nitrogen excreted in the urine. During digestion protein is broken down into individual amino acids for absorption. In the body these are reassembled to make body tissue or egg protein. Birds can make some amino acids from other protein but many amino acids are essential, that is they must be present in the diet. Proteins from animal sources (meat, milk, insects, larvae etc.) contain the essential amino acids. Most plants are low in protein and vary widely in essential amino acid content. Most are low in one or more essential amino acids. Some legume plant seeds such as beans are high in protein.
  • Vitamins. This term describes a variety of essential nutrients that are not similar to one another, except that they are essential in the diet, but only required in very small amounts. They are used as metabolic regulators. They are either water soluble or fat soluble. Vitamins or their precursors are present in small, but variable amounts in some feeds. Most vitamins are manufactured (synthetic) for use in commercial feed. Precursors of vitamin D3 can be produced in the skin by sunlight. Vitamin C is produced by bacteria in the intestine in chickens.
  • Minerals. Minerals are not organic. They are chemical elements. Those required in small but significant amounts (calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium and chlorine) are major minerals. Essential trace minerals are iodine, cobalt (as cobolamin), iron, copper, zinc, selenium and molybdenum. Most minerals must be added to the diet for good growth and egg production. Laying hens need a ration with 3% calcium to make egg shells. This can be supplied free choice as small pieces of bone-meal, coral, sea-shell or limestone. Phosphorus in plants is present as phytate phosphorus and is only partially available unless phytase enzyme is added to the feed.
  • Water. Water is an essential nutrient. Water is the major part of animal tissues and all body functions require water.
  • A source of clean, cool water should always be available free choice.
  • Antibiotics. Antibiotics are drugs made from bacteria or fungi that are used as medicine to prevent or treat bacterial disease. They are sometimes used as growth stimulants in chickens.
  • Probiotics. Probiotics are bacteria or products produced by bacteria that encourage the growth of “good” bacteria (those that prevent the attachment and or growth of disease causing bacteria) in the intestine.
  • Chemotherapeutics are chemical compounds used as medicines.
  • Vaccines are preparations of live organisms, (mainly viruses) used to produce immunity (defence) against disease causing viruses. They stimulate antibody production by the chicken to protect against the virus material in the vaccine. Because they are live and must multiply in the body to be effective, they can be used as a spray, in water, eyedrop, wing web injection or subcutaneous injection.
  • Bacterins are preparations of killed organisms (bacteria, mycoplasma, virus, etc.) for subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. They also stimulate antibody production.
  • Antibodies are very small particles produced by lymphocytes (type of blood cell) that circulate in the blood to help the body defence systems stop infection by specific virus or bacteria that had stimulated the lymphocytes to produce the antibody. They can also be passed in the egg from the hen to the chick (maternal antibody) and protect the chick for 1-3 weeks.
  • Cereal grains. Cereals are the grains grown specifically from human and animal food. They include wheat, millet, rice, maize (corn), sorghum (milo, kafir or guinea corn), barley, oats etc. Grains provide the main source of energy in commercial poultry feed. Protein in cereals are low (8 to 12%) and the quality (level of essential amino acids) is poor.
  • By-products. By-products are the parts of a grain, oilseed, or animal that is being prepared for human food, that is not used for human food. Examples are wheat or rice bran or animal viscerae that may be fed to chickens.
  • Complete feed. A prepared feed that contains all of the nutrients for the best growth or egg production for the flock for which it is being used is called a complete feed. These feeds are usually prepared commercially by a feed manufacturer. Broiler chickens receive high protein (21 to 23%) starter for the first 14 to 21 days, grower to day 28 or longer and finisher, that is lower in protein and higher in energy, until ready for market.
  • Supplement or concentrate is a prepared feed that is intended to be added to or mixed with other feed material to improve the nutrient balance of the final feed.
  • Premix. A premix may contain a variety of specific ingredients such as vitamins, trace minerals, amino acids, or medicine that is to be mixed with other feed to supply essential or important elements that may be missing. Essential nutrients are sometimes added to the water if they are water-soluble.
  • Antinutrients. Some feed ingredients and potential feeds contain factors that inhibit the digestive process causing reduced growth, diarrhea or pasting. They limit the amount of some feed ingredients that can be added to the final feed. The antinutrition factors in some feed material such as beans can be destroyed by heat (cooking).
  • Phytotoxins are toxic or poison substances found in plants used as feed for chickens. The toxic material can be in the seed (castor bean) leaf or stem or in the root or tuber (cassava). At low levels some might only reduce growth rate or have no effect. At higher doses they might cause illness or death. Toxic weed seeds may contaminate grain that is being harvested making that feed toxic.
  • Mycotoxins are poisons produced by moulds growing in food material. Various fungi produce different toxins. Aspergillus fungi produce aflatoxin, one of the most serious in hot climates. The fungi can grow in crops in the field, in seeds in storage or in prepared feed for chickens.

Contact Us

H. Off: 13-c, 2nd Floor, Block K-1, Valencia Town, Lahore

+92 42 351844 18-19

+92 322 4443339

info@thegrains.pk